Data movement is typically from one place in memory to another. Sometimes it involves moving data between memory and registers which enable high-speed data access in the CPU. Moving data, especially large amounts of it, can be costly. So, this is sometimes avoided by using "pointers" to data instead.
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Computations include simple operations such as incrementing the value of a variable data element. More complex computations may involve many operations and data elements together.
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Software quality is very important, especially for commercial and system software like Microsoft Office , Microsoft Windows and Linux. If software is faulty buggy , it can delete a person's work, crash the computer and do other unexpected things. Faults and errors are called " bugs " which are often discovered during alpha and beta testing. Software is often also a victim to what is known as software aging , the progressive performance degradation resulting from a combination of unseen bugs.
Many bugs are discovered and eliminated debugged through software testing. However, software testing rarely—if ever—eliminates every bug; some programmers say that "every program has at least one more bug" Lubarsky's Law. Software can be tested through unit testing , regression testing and other methods, which are done manually, or most commonly, automatically, since the amount of code to be tested can be quite large.
For instance, NASA has extremely rigorous software testing procedures for many operating systems and communication functions.
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Many NASA-based operations interact and identify each other through command programs. This enables many people who work at NASA to check and evaluate functional systems overall. Programs containing command software enable hardware engineering and system operations to function much easier together. The software's license gives the user the right to use the software in the licensed environment, and in the case of free software licenses , also grants other rights such as the right to make copies. Proprietary software can be divided into two types:. Open source software , on the other hand, comes with a free software license , granting the recipient the rights to modify and redistribute the software.
Software patents, like other types of patents, are theoretically supposed to give an inventor an exclusive, time-limited license for a detailed idea e. Ideas for useful things that software could do , and user requirements , are not supposed to be patentable, and concrete implementations i. So software patents are supposed to cover the middle area, between requirements and concrete implementation. In some countries, a requirement for the claimed invention to have an effect on the physical world may also be part of the requirements for a software patent to be held valid—although since all useful software has effects on the physical world, this requirement may be open to debate.
Meanwhile, American copyright law was applied to various aspects of the writing of the software code. Software patents are controversial in the software industry with many people holding different views about them. One of the sources of controversy is that the aforementioned split between initial ideas and patent does not seem to be honored in practice by patent lawyers—for example the patent for Aspect-Oriented Programming AOP , which purported to claim rights over any programming tool implementing the idea of AOP, howsoever implemented.
Another source of controversy is the effect on innovation, with many distinguished experts and companies arguing that software is such a fast-moving field that software patents merely create vast additional litigation costs and risks, and actually retard innovation. In the case of debates about software patents outside the United States, the argument has been made that large American corporations and patent lawyers are likely to be the primary beneficiaries of allowing or continue to allow software patents.
Design and implementation of software varies depending on the complexity of the software. For instance, the design and creation of Microsoft Word took much more time than designing and developing Microsoft Notepad because the latter has much more basic functionality. Libraries APIs can be categorized by their purpose. For instance, the Spring Framework is used for implementing enterprise applications , the Windows Forms library is used for designing graphical user interface GUI applications like Microsoft Word , and Windows Communication Foundation is used for designing web services.
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When a program is designed, it relies upon the API. Close and Form1. Show  to close or open the application. Without these APIs, the programmer needs to write these functionalities entirely themselves. Companies like Oracle and Microsoft provide their own APIs so that many applications are written using their software libraries that usually have numerous APIs in them. Data structures such as hash tables , arrays , and binary trees , and algorithms such as quicksort , can be useful for creating software. Computer software has special economic characteristics that make its design, creation, and distribution different from most other economic goods.
A person who creates software is called a programmer , software engineer or software developer , terms that all have a similar meaning. A great variety of software companies and programmers in the world comprise a software industry. Folders in which documents can be stored are easily created. For instance, in a Windows environment , a folder can be created on the desktop. The folder is ready for use. To move documents into the folder, click on the document icon and hold the left mouse button down while dragging the document on top of the folder.
Most word processing programs allow the user to copy, move, delete, and rename files. Files can be moved from one place to another by using the drag-and-drop method. The file remains in the Recycle bin on the desktop for a brief period once deleted; therefore, if a mistake was made and the file is needed, the user should look to see whether it is still available.
Renaming files is as simple as clicking twice on the file name and typing in the new one. Text can be moved from one place to another by cutting and pasting. These functions allow the user to be more efficient when creating documents. Computers have a search mechanism that allows the user to search for a file with certain keywords or extensions. An option to search all files and folders also is available. An entire diskette or compact disk CD can be copied.
If the work has not yet been saved, the user is prompted either to save the document or cancel the action. When the user has finished with the computer for the day, it always should be shut down properly. This takes the computer back through the booting sequence and often corrects problems and allows the user to continue working. Often a technical assistance desk can guide the user through various steps to correct basic issues. Always report computer malfunctions to the proper person or department. Computer systems have user manuals which can usually be easily accessed and referenced online, and can usually be saved to the local computer system or the computer desktop.
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These manuals can be consulted when functions do not perform as they should or when a user is working with an unfamiliar system. Tutorials may be available to help the new user learn the system or to refresh the skills of the experienced user. Software programs have a help function, usually accessed on the tool bar.
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The help function allows the user to type in keywords to search for instructions on using certain features or to reference an index of help topics. The help function is written into the program, and users do not pay a fee for its use. However, most of the major software programs, such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Creative Suite, have entire books devoted to details about the use and capabilities of the software, and classes often are available. A computer is a machine designed to accept, store, process, and provide information Figure Computers serve the following basic functions:.
It can take a variety of forms, from commands entered from the keyboard to data from another computer or device, such as a scanner. The device that feeds data into a computer, such as a mouse, scanner, keyboard, or voice recognition system, is called an input device. Output can appear in many forms, such as binary numbers, characters, pictures, printed pages, or a simple image on the computer screen.
Output devices include monitors, speakers, printers, scanners, and modems. Data can be stored on the hard drive, on CDs, or on separate drives, such as an external hard drive or a flash drive two different types of storage devices. The type of storage device used depends on the amount of information that needs to be saved and where it needs to be used.
CDs and flash drives are common portable storage devices used in the business world. Computer Concepts. Explain the basic functions a computer performs.
Explain the basic parts of a computer. Explain the importance of a motherboard. Introduction to Computer Concepts 2. Using the Computing Environment 3. Working with the Web 4. Microsoft Outlook and Email Clients.
flaxunalwenwou.tk Introduction to Word 6. DevelA--oping and Editing Documents 7. Advanced Features. Introduction to PowerPoint 9. Creating Presentations Introduction to Excel Developing a Worksheet